Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana <p><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en" tabindex="-1"><span class=""><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">The "Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana" of the Ricardo Palma University (Rev. Fac. Med. Hum.) is the organ of scientific diffusion of the faculty and a publication for the medical community as a whole. This comunity includes students, graduates, academics, researchers and national and international institutions. It covers current issues, with original and unpublished articles, related to the various specialties of the biomedical and Public Health area.</span></span></span></span></p> Universidad Ricardo Palma en-US Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 1814-5469 Impact of the Covid-19 pandemic in a specialized Tuberculosis unit <p><strong>Dear editor,</strong><br /><br />The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected other disease prevention and control programs that could cause more deaths than the coronavirus itself <sup>(<a href="">1</a>)</sup>, and also having substantial consequences for other domains, such as social impact: slowing economic growth and increasing rates of unemployment, poverty, and food insecurity.</p> Xiomara Bernal-Duran Angel Cubas-Alcántara Karina Narváez Hidalgo María Navarro-Castro Renzo Villanueva-Villegas Félix Llanos-Tejada Copyright (c) 2022 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.4984 Need for the development of competencies in palliative care during the undergraduate of the medical career <p><strong>Dear editor,</strong><br /><br />Palliative Care (PC) aims to improve the quality of life and alleviate the suffering of patients with serious and incurable conditions. With the aging of the population and the higher prevalence of chronic diseases, the number of people in need of this care has increased. PC is multidimensional and interdisciplinary; and can be provided at different levels of care by both general practitioners and specialists. Therefore, adequate training in this discipline must be required during the medicine degree to allow the development of the necessary skills for its application in medical practice.</p> Rubén R. Sánchez-Ruiz Lucy Perla G. Cedillo Ramírez Jaime Lama-Valdivia Copyright (c) 1970 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.4885 The need for a comprehensive approach to address the zoonotic disease emergency <p>Dear Editor</p> <p>Emerging infectious diseases that affect humans commonly come from pathogens whose hosts are<br />wildlife species. These zoonotic disease outbreaks constitute a major challenge to human health. In<br />fact, the current Covid-19 pandemic has evidenced that the activities human beings carry out in<br />ecosystems, as well as, the use of wildlife species, have a direct impact on society.</p> José L. Mena Copyright (c) 2022 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-13 2022-07-13 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.5054 Importance of social isolation in mental health: Comments on the original article <p>In his brilliant article published under the name Anxiety level of first-year medical students from a private university in Peru in times of Covid-19, he shows us that of 57 first-year medical students, 75.4% suffered from high levels of anxiety during the current pandemic, which seemed to me a disturbing result, since it is a condition that has been involving practically all of us in recent years. We can also observe that a significant association was found between the female sex and the presence of anxiety1, which would mean that this impact has a certain degree of preference in terms of sex. It is essential to give the appropriate importance and receive treatment as soon as possible to this mental health problem and thus avoid even more serious consequences, therefore, both family and professional support should be had.</p> Erich A. Egg Rosas Leslie M. Mendoza-Arias Copyright (c) 2022 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-08-01 2022-08-01 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.5006 Using Intervention Mapping protocol to design a nutrition education material <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Evidence-based and culturally acceptable educational materials have been shown to be an effective tool in promoting healthy eating.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To design a printed nutritional education material using Intervention Mapping protocol for a Lifestyle Clinic.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Four of the steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol were used: 1) needs assessment, 2 identification of behavioral outcomes, performance objectives, and change objectives, 3) selection of theory-based methods and strategies and 4) program development.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The Logical Model PRECEDE was built, the matrix of change objectives based on the determinants of knowledge, identification, availability, and information processing was used as a theoretical model. A 22-page magazine was obtained with content, images, text and writing based on the Intervention Mapping steps.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The Intervention Mapping process provided evidence-based and participatory inputs for the design of the educational material of the Lifestyle Clinic.</p> Anairotciv de la Cruz Álvarez Daniela G. Frutos-Nájera José L. Jiménez Ortiz Lujhon Florez Copyright (c) 1970 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.4835 Prevalence, clinical manifestations, and associated factors of long COVID-19 <p>The aim was to describe the prevalence, clinical manifestations, and associated factors of long-COVID. Bibliographic research of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was carried out in MEDLINE (through PubMed) until April 7th, 2022. 37 articles were found and 3 were included. Evidence quality was assessed via AMSTAR 2 criteria. Long-COVID prevalence is 43% (IC95%: 39% – 46%). Main clinical manifestations were weakness (41% [IC95%: 25% – 59%]), malaise (33% [IC95%: 15% – 57%]), fatigue (31% [IC95%: 24% – 39%]), concentration impairment (26% [IC95%: 21% – 32%]), and breathlessness (25% [IC95%: 18% – 34%]). Factors associated with long COVID were female sex, initial disease severity, age, and presence of comorbidities.</p> Daniel Rojas-Bolivar Fabiola Huaroto-Ramírez Maricela Curisinche-Rojas Diana Gonzales Zurita Ericson Gutiérrez Copyright (c) 2022 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.5009 Viral etiology associated with Guillain-Barré Syndrome: seeking an answer to the idiopathic <p>Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is a rare disorder of the nervous system, where the patient's immune system attacks the peripheral nerve cells in the arms and legs, causing muscle weakness, loss of sensation and sometimes total paralysis. The origin of this disorder has been associated with immune responses triggered by post-infection with <em>Campylobacter </em>spp. However, when there is no obvious cause of the disease, it is usually not investigated due to the greater interest in the treatment. Therefore, most cases are reported as idiopathic origin. Between January and March 2016 worldwide, GBS outbreaks were reported in 8 countries, linked to the emergence of the Zika virus. In Peru, since the end of 2018, outbreaks of GBS have been reported more frequently and although no association with Zika has been confirmed, the increase in cases, the geographical extension where they occurred and the clinical characteristics of affected patients, have common patterns that lead to suspect an infectious origin mainly of viral type. Therefore, it is important to know the current scientific evidence about the role that some viruses play in this syndrome, allowing us to expand our epidemiological picture with new tools to address this disease</p> Jorge A. Vega-Fernández Danny O. Suclupe-Campos Mayra M. Coico-Vega Franklin R. Aguilar-Gamboa Copyright (c) 1970 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.2993 Clinical implications of the molecular biology of prostate cancer: Review article <p>To understand the term genomic heterogeneity in prostate cancer, we must understand the clonal genomic evolution of cancer, as well as knowing that it is a dynamic and evolutionary phenomenon. Knowing the genome of prostate cancer not only allows us to have a vision over time of the genomic alterations that occur during its different stages, but also to learn about the mechanisms of metastasis. In addition, knowing the hereditary component of prostate cancer allows the evaluation of patients and to be able to identify if we are dealing with a family at risk.</p> María del Carmen Castro-Mujica Copyright (c) 2022 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.5043 Biochemical suffocants: Carbon Monoxide and Cyanide <p>Gas poisoning, both voluntary and involuntary, has a high incidence and is often accompanied by high mortality. Occupational exposures and fires are the most common sources of inhalation injury. Suffocants chemicals are substances that cause oxygen deficiency without interfering with respiratory mechanics by altering biological oxidative mechanisms. Among the main chemical fixing agents are carbon monoxide and cyanide, which act by altering cellular respiration through blocks of mitochondrial enzymes. When exposed inadequately to both gases, they can cause symptoms ranging from mild and nonspecific symptoms to alterations at the neurological and cardiovascular levels or even death within minutes. It is important to know the comprehensive management of patients intoxicated by biochemical asphyxiants, in the case of carbon monoxide, the adequate use of oxygen and support measures, and in the case of cyanide, antidotes and their adequate administration, in order to decrease mortality and aftermath.</p> Celna Y. Hernández Bello Augusto F. Figueroa-Uribe Julia Hernández-Ramírez Copyright (c) 1970 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.4928 Clinical and radiological profile of patients with Stroke in a terciary centre on Luanda, Angola <p><strong>Introduction </strong>Cerebral Vascular Acident (CVA) or Stroke is a sudden onset syndrome characterized by focal or global changes in the brain funcion as consequence of a desorder of vascular origin witen a development longer than 24 hours. Depending or the nature of the injury, it can be Ischemic or Hemorrhsgic. The latter way be intraparenchymator or subarachnoid. Stroke is the second leading cause of death adult disability in the world. There are several risk factos associated with the above mentioned disease, among them the hypertension. There is an exponential increase in cases of fore mentioned disease as well as in the prevalence of risk factos in population.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To know clinical and radiological profile of patients treated at Sagrada Esperança Clinic, from January to December 2018.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: The universe of study consisted of all the files of patients admitted from january 1st to December 31 st, 2018, with the following release diagnostic codes: I60 ( subarachnoid Hemorrhage), I61 ( Intracerebral Hemorrhage), I62 ( Other non-traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage), I63 ( Cerebral Infarction), I64 (not specified), G45 (Transient Ischemic Stroke and Correlated syndromes), making up a total a 312 listed patients, of which 211 were excluded by having a history of the disease being studied, 18 due to misdiagnosis in the process and 8 cases were lost due to non exam sor reports on the severs. There were 75 cases for the study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> from the total number of cases studied which is 75, the most prevalent age group was from 41-60 years old which makes up 45%, the average age was 58,8 ± 13 years old, the male gender represented 45 cases (60%); Blacks were predominant with 64 cases (89%). Ischemic stroke was the most frequent with 42 cases (56%), the average hospitalization was the most prevalente deficit in both Isquemic VCA, with 18 cases (9%), and 4 patients (5%) died. The widdle cerebral arrtery área was the most affected in both Isquemic 23 cases (30,7%) and Intraparenchymal Hemorrhagie Strokes 17 cases (53,1%) and subarachnnoid 2 cases (3,7%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> Most patients were 40-80 years old, male and black. Stroke was more frequent, and the most affected área was the middle cerebral artery, with the most frequent deficit being hemiparesis and facial paresis; The most aommon risk factor was Hypertension. In regards to the lenth of stay mosto f them were in the clinic from 5-9 days and few of them died.</p> Adilson JM. de Oliveira Arsenio Zola Ndenga S. Machado Bebiano Tomás Copyright (c) 2022 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.5039 Safety and protective effect of Cenchrus echinatus on breast cancer induced in rats <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Breast cancer is a disease that is increasing its incidence annually, so in search of complementary alternatives for treatment have been studied some medicinal plants containing large amounts of polyphenols, which have anticancer effects as is the case of <em>Cenchrus echinatus</em> L.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the safety and protective effect of ethanol extract of <em>Cenchrus echinatus </em>L. (burdock) on breast cancer induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Preclinical, experimental study in male Balb/C53 mice and Holtzman rats of both sexes. Acute toxicity and toxicity at 45 days were calculated using probit and OECD methods, respectively; to evaluate the protective effect, the Barros 2004 method was used; tumor cell proliferation was also registered microscopically, using descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, considering p&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Safety studies show that the extract does not induce significant hematologic, biochemical and pathological changes level 80% of the protective effect of the extract against DMBA-induced breast cancer in rats was achieved.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> It has been shown that Cenchrus echinatus extract L. has protective effect on breast cancer by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced in rats; and it is not toxic in mice and rats.</p> César B. Cisneros Hilario Jorge L. Arroyo Acevedo María P. Bedoya Castillo Betsy A. Lázaro Huamán Katia E. Mendoza Chávez Evelin J. Cisneros Hilario Copyright (c) 1970 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.4915 Acute appendicitis: clinical, surgical and pathological concordance in a Peruvian emergency hospital <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Acute appendicitis is the most frequent pathology in surgical emergency. The timeliness and effectiveness of the diagnosis is a parameter for evaluating the quality of care.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the concordance between clinical, surgical and pathological diagnoses in patients with acute appendicitis, “José Casimiro Ulloa” Emergency Hospital, Lima - Peru, 2018.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: Observational, cross-sectional, retrospective, analytical study. Medical records of 222 patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis in 2018 were reviewed. Sample calculation with known population (1200), probability sampling. Patients&gt; 18 years of age diagnosed with acute appendicitis, who had undergone surgery, had a pathological study, excluding pregnant women and patients with comorbidities. Data were processed and analyzed with SPSS v.25, descriptive statistics and kappa coefficient were used to analyze agreement, using the Landis and Koch assessment: mild agreement (Kappa = 0.01-0.20), acceptable (0, 21 -0.40), moderate (0.41-0.60), considerable (0.61-0.80) and almost perfect (0.81-1).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Adults (50.9%), males (56.8%) predominated. (83.8%) were clinically diagnosed as appendicitis requiring surgery. The predominant surgical diagnosis was a suppurative appendix (32.4%) and a predominant pathological diagnosis of the phlegmonous appendix (72.7%). A case of normal appendix in pathological diagnosis.</p> <p>The clinical-surgical diagnostic agreement was (kappa = 4.18), clinical-pathological diagnosis (kappa = 0.66), and the surgical and pathological diagnostic agreement (kappa = 0.497).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> A moderate concordance was found between clinical - surgical diagnosis, considerable concordance between clinical - pathological diagnosis, reaffirming the clinical importance in decision-making for a timely surgical intervention. Surgical and pathological diagnostic agreement was moderate, observing a moderate degree of certainty from surgeons and pathologists.</p> Merylin R. Rafael Parhuana Kathya M. Quispe Rivera Lilian R. Pantoja Sánchez Copyright (c) 1970 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-08-01 2022-08-01 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.4378 Relationship between the meal frequency and timing with overweight and obesity in trujillan adults. <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Overweight and obesity are rapidly growing in the world, with a higher risk of chronic diseases. Nutritional strategies are of great interest for weight loss and control, such as the influence of meal frequency and timing.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the relationship between the meal frequency and timing with overweight and obesity in the adult population of Trujillo between 30 and 70 years old.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Descriptive, cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. A sample of 160 participants, between 30 and 70 years old, is included; the data was collected through a virtual survey. Participants were classified into a normal weight group established by a BMI between 18.5-24.9 and an overweight-obese group established by a BMI greater than or equal to 25. An expert-validated questionnaire was produced to assess the meal frequency and timing.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 160 participants, 61.88% were female, 40% were between 30-39 years old. The normal weight group was made up of 60 participants; and overweight-obesity, per 100 participants. In the statistical analysis, a significant difference was evidenced between the level of low-moderate physical activity (p = 0.019), the meal frequency did not present a significant difference (p = 0.477) and within the meal timing, the consumption of subsequent dinner at 8:00 pm showed a significant difference (p = 0.021), as well as the consumption of intermediates after 5:00 pm (p = 0.016),</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Consuming food during the night in a time after 8:00 pm is significantly associated with the risk of overweight and obesity; while in the meal frequency it does not appear.</p> Eduardo R. Lam Cabanillas Katerine J. Hilario Vásquez Leidy M. Huamán Salirrosas Jean C. Ipanaqué Sánchez Yulissa F. Jiménez Rosales Juan J. Huamán Saavedra Copyright (c) 1970 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.4744 Neonatal, maternal and invasive procedures factors associated with late neonatal sepsis in the period 2011-2020 systematic review and meta-analysis. <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To review, evaluate and synthesize available literature on neonatal and maternal factors and invasive procedures associated with late neonatal sepsis during the last ten years<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The databases used for the bibliographic search were: Pubmed/Medline, LILACS, SciELO, and Google Scholar. Analytical studies investigating risk factors for late neonatal sepsis by stages (title, abstract and full text) were selected. The risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Heterogeneity was set, and a random-effects meta-analysis was performed for the following risk factors: gender, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 5 min, premature rupture of membranes, route of delivery, use of a central venous catheter, and ventilation. Mechanics. The effect was measured with an odds ratio. The certainty of the evidence was determined using the GRADE methodology. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Eight studies from 633 records were collected. Heterogeneity was high. Three male studies OR: 1.97(0.26-14.59) p=0.03; I2 =80%, prematurity 2 studies OR: 2.48 (1.13-5.45); p=0.04; I2 =72%, use of central venous catheter 4 studies – OR: 3.83 (1.07 – 13.71) p&lt;0.01; I2 =89% and mechanical ventilation 4 studies OR: 2.83 (1.42 – 5.68); p&lt;0.01; I2 =86%) were independent factors for the development of late neonatal sepsis. Studies had the lowest comparability assessment score when the risk of bias was applied. The results had low certainty of evidence.</p> <p><strong>Interpretation:</strong> Male sex, prematurity, use of a central venous catheter, and mechanical ventilation are risk factors for late sepsis.</p> Allison Poquioma Walter Mosquera María Loo Valverde Luis Roldán Víctor Vera Jhony A. De La Cruz-Vargas Copyright (c) 1970 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.4929 Maternal factors associated with fetal macrosomia according to the national survey of demographics and family health 2020 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Fetal macrosomia is an embarrassing condition that causes complications in short, medium and wide placenta for the fetus, both pregnant and pregnant.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To determine the maternal factors associated with fetal macrosomia following the national demographic and health survey 2020.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>Observational, retrospective, analytical, cross-sectional study carried out in the ENDES survey in the period 2020 to 5096 women aged 12 to 49 years who they meet the established criteria. For the statistical analysis, SPSS version 25 is used, the F sample corrected for complete samples and a significance level of 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of fetal macrosomia is 7.5%. Multivariate analysis found that, among personal factors, maternal edema has a significant association with fetal macrosomia (RPa 1.04, 95% IC 1.008 - 1.078). Of the pathological factors, maternal obesity has a significant association with fetal macrosomia (RPa 1.05, 95% CI 1.027 - 1.080). Of the social and demographic factors associated with fetal macrosomia, no variable describes a significant association.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It was determined that maternal age over 34 years and maternal obesity are factors associated with a higher prevalence of fetal macrosomia.</p> Angela Ruiz Canchucaja Luis A. Cano Cardenas Copyright (c) 1970 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.4795 Gaps in access to oncological treatment in a reference health hospital in the south of Lima in 2019 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Cancer, a chronic disease that has a high incidence with 14.1 million people and more than 8.1 million deaths, generating a large access gap according to the user's perception.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: To determine the gaps in access to cancer treatment in a Hospital in Peru in 2019, due to predisposing, enabling and necessary factors. Method: observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 185 patients diagnosed with cancer who were treated at the oncology department of the Hospital María Auxiliadora between March and December 2019, applying a random survey.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The predisposing factors for the gap in access to cancer care were: primary education or none (p= 0.000), female gender (p=0.043), being afraid of a cancer diagnosis (p=0.000), being afraid of interventions (p=0.043) and being over 65 years old (p=0.000), having feelings of helplessness (p=0.000). Within the enabling factors as a gap: not having a job (p=0.011), payment for exams in a private way (p=0.035), stop working (p=0.039), payment for medicines in a private way (p= 0.000), resort to the loan (p= 0.009), health expenditure between 501-1000 soles in health (p=0.048). Of the necessary factors: having moderate to severe anemia (p=0.002) or having required more than one treatment in combination (p=0.003).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: there is a gap for cancer care such as those concerning the predisposing factor (fear of cancer diagnosis and treatment); enabling (infrastructure and equipment, payment for medicines) and necessary factor (severe anemia).</p> Reina I. Bustamante José M. Vela- Ruiz Omar Paredes-Olivares Ricardo A. Carreño-Escobedo Copyright (c) 1970 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.4753 Virtual teaching of surgical sutures for undergraduate human medicine students during the COVID-19 pandemic. <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the level of the technical skills development of the medical student in performing surgical sutures through a virtual teaching model.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A retrospective, descriptive and longitudinal study was carried out that evaluated some skills of 24 undergraduate medical students, without prior surgery knowledge to perform surgical sutures (simple and crossed interrupted suture) through virtual teaching of the course of surgical technique (virtual classrooms, synchronous videoconferences, inanimate and ex vivo simulation models and telementoring).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In relation to the simple interrupted suture, there was a significant improvement in the OSATS (objective structured assessment of technical skills) from 6 ± 0.28 to 28 ± 2.6 as well as the rubric of the finished suture from 5 ± 0.28 to 24 ± 1.5 and a decrease in the time to perform the suture from 44 ± 13 seconds to 33 ± 9 seconds at the end of the course (p = 0.0001). In relation to the cross interrupted suture, there was a significant improvement in the OSATS from 6 ± 0.28 to 27 ± 2, as well as the final suture from 5 ± 0.28 to 24 ± 1.7 and a decrease in the time to perform the suture from 66 ± 21 seconds at 56 ± 11 seconds, in favor of the post-test. (p = 0.0001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> There is an adequate development of technical competencies in medical students for the realization of simple and crossed interrupted sutures through the proposed virtual teaching model.</p> Consuelo E. Cornejo Carrasco Copyright (c) 1970 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.4269 Prevalence and factors associated with retinopathy in patients of the integral diabetes program of the san genaro de villa Chorillos health center, Lima-Peru <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To determine the prevalence and factors associated with retinopathy in patients of the Comprehensive Diabetes Program of the San Genaro Health Center in Villa Chorrillos.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional, prospective study; with a sample of 119 adults and older adults. Non-probabilistic convenience sampling was used. The variables studied were diabetic retinopathy, type of diabetic retinopathy, degree of diabetic retinopathy, age, sex, educational level, time of illness, time belonging to the program, type of treatment, personal history of arterial hypertension, personal history of dyslipidemia, mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Body Mass Index (BMI), Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c), Total Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol, Triglycerides, creatinine clearance, microalbuminuria, visual efficiency of Snell-Sterling, associated ocular pathology and ocular pressure. Descriptive statistical methods were used.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was 15.1%, of which 77.8% is nonproliferative RD and 22.2% proliferative RD. In relation to the degrees in Non-Proliferative DR, 64.3% is mild and 35.7% moderate; and in Proliferative DR, 25% is early, 25% high risk and 50% severe. The biochemical value that showed a considerable difference was microalbuminuria, reaching a value of 356.9 mg/dl/24hrs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The prevalence of retinopathy is 15.1%, of which 77.8% is non-proliferative retinopathy and 22.2% proliferative retinopathy and the associated factors were systolic blood pressure (p&lt;0.001) and microalbuminuria(p&lt;0.001).</p> John Longa-López Miguel Mavila-Salon Luis A. Rodriguez-Dominguez Copyright (c) 2022 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.4951 Malaria and COVID-19 in native communities of Amazonas, Peru <p><strong>Introduction </strong>In recent years, the number of malaria cases in native communities from Condorcanqui, Amazonas has considerably increased. Plasmodium vivax malaria is endemic in the region and the re-introduction of P. falciparum was reported in 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methods </strong>Here, we compiled and analyzed malaria and COVID-19 data reported by the Regional Direction of Health (DIRESA) during the 2020. Additionally, we performed an odds ratio analysis to evaluate significant associations between COVID-19 symptoms and previous malaria infections.</p> <p><strong>Results </strong>In 2020, 1547 malaria (97% were P. vivax) and 5968 COVID-19 cases were reported. Furthermore, 96 patients got COVID-19 after getting a malaria infection. From these, 87 were symptomatic (90.6%), and mostly adults, ages 30 to 59 (62.3%). Also, we found that malaria previous infections represent a risk for the presence of symptoms such as fever, cough, throat pain, and respiratory difficulty. Nevertheless, there was no significant association between these cases and hospitalization or death.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>Our analysis suggests that previous malaria infections might affect COVID-19 symptomatology, which highlights the importance of a continuing control and surveillance malaria program to avoid potential syndemics with COVID-19.</p> Cecilia Pajuelo-Reyes Luis M. Rojas Christian J. Campos Milagros Saavedra-Samillan J. Miguel Bernal Juan R. Tejedo Pershing Bustamante Stella M. Chenet Rafael Tapia-Limonchi Copyright (c) 2022 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.5044 Validation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) in human medicine interns at a reference university in Peru during the COVID-19 pandemic <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: Validate a questionnaire to establish the perception of difficulties in the development of research projects in the students of the research area of ​​the Faculty of Human Medicine of the Peruvian University Los Andes.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Validation study of a questionnaire designed and based on a Likert scale applied to the students of the subjects of Research process, Thesis seminar I and Thesis seminar II with stratified random probability sampling, content validity analysis and construct by expert judgment and statistical analysis of reliability with Cronbach's alpha.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The sample consisted of 85 students who agreed to be part of the study, of which 64,70% belonged to the female gender with an average age of 23 ± 5 years, subject of thesis seminar I 36,47%, Process research 34,12%, thesis seminar II 29,41%; 64,71% expressed difficulties in preparing the research project in formulating the theoretical framework and methodology, 62,35% in writing the bibliography and annexes, 61,18% in posing the problem and formulating hypotheses, in definition of the title 58,82% and in preparation of the administration of the project plan 47,06%. Cronbach's alpha reliability was 0,969.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The questionnaire is reliable and valid, it has high internal consistency and valid criteria.</p> Efraín A. Cehua Alvarez Horus Virú-Flores Joseph Alburqueque-Melgarejo Juan C. Roque-Quezada Jamee Guerra Valencia Geremi A. Gonzales Matta Magdiel José M. Gonzales Menéndez David A. Laván Quiroz Copyright (c) 1970 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v21i1.3179 Anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma: 10-year experience at the National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases, Lima – Peru <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Anaplastic Large T-Cell Lymphoma is an infrequent pathology, determined by the expression of CD30, with different characteristics in its presentation and being more aggressive according to the expression of ALK.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The present study seeks to determine the epidemiological, clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics of patients with Anaplastic Large T-Cell Lymphoma.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Descriptive, retrospective study of patients diagnosed with Anaplastic Large T-Cell Lymphoma of the National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases (INEN) between 2006 and 2016.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The pathology of 86 patients was analyzed and reviewed, 57% were men and 33% women, of the total population 21.9% were positive for ALK. 48 of the patients were found in CD I and II and 36 between stages III and IV. 57 patients had low or low-intermediate risk, while 26 had high-intermediate and high risk. The estimated overall survival was 40.8% at 5 years, in the group of patients with ALK + it was 67.4% and in the group with ALK- it was estimated at 30.2%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Anaplastic Large T-Cell Lymphoma is an aggressive disease, with a heterogeneous distribution with respect to age and slightly more frequent in males, with ALK and the international prognostic index as important prognostic factors.</p> Cristian Pacheco Monica Calderon Carlos Barrionuevo Cornejo Henry Gomez Moreno Copyright (c) 2022 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.5027 Levels of emotional intelligence in psychology students at a Peruvian public university <p><strong>Objetives</strong>: This study investigated the levels of emotional intelligence in undergraduate psychology students, both males and females of a public university in Lambayeque as well as the levels of emotional intelligence according to sex, age and academic semester.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: It is a descriptive study, which type of sampling was non probabilistic, snow ball type sampling for which participated 112 undergraduate students. The instrument used was the Baron Ice Emotional Intelligence Inventory of 133 items, 5-point Likert-scale. The findings show that 27.7% of the students report an average level of emotional intelligence and 10.7/% report a high level.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Regarding the levels according to sex, men presented a higher level of emotional intelligence (43%) in comparison to women (22%). Nevertheless, both sexes present an average level (30% and 26.8% respectively). With respect to age, results suggest that older students present an average level of emotional intelligence, according to 50% of the participants, for ages 27 and 31. Likewise, 32.40% of advanced semester students report an average level of emotional intelligence.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Finally, it is concluded that the curricular training of psychology students must implement activities toward the development of emotional intelligence for future professional performance, considering the socio-cultural variables.</p> Claudia D. Vallejos Valdivia Copyright (c) 2022 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-20 2022-07-20 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.5015 Health profile of the population that attended to an integral health campaign in the time of covid-19 at a peruvian city <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of the study was to determine the health profile of the population that attended an integrated health campaign in times of COVID-19. </p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> It was a Cross-sectional, observational, descriptive, and retrospective study. The population is made up of a total of 289 patients who met the selection criteria. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the total number of patients (289), 64.7% were female, from this group 8.3% reported having had COVID-19. COVID-19 cases were reported to be between the ages of 15 to 59 years (37%). The most frequent comorbidity was: obesity (26.6%), followed by arterial hypertension (11.8%) and diabetes mellitus (3.8%). The most frequent signs and symptoms of COVID-19 were: dyspnea (4.5%), myalgia (4.2%), cough (3.1%), and rhinorrhea (3.1%). Only 19.7% of patients reported having received the COVID-19 vaccine at the time of the study. The most frequently reported pathologies were: respiratory (26.3%), musculoskeletal (25.3%), endocrinological (12.1%), cardiovascular (11.1%), and infectious pathologies (11.1%). The associated variables were: no comorbidity (p = 0.014; CI 95 [0.208-0.853]; OR = 0.421), obesity (p = 0.010; CI 95% [1.228-5.161] OR = 2.518), and dyspnea (p = 0.000; CI 95 [4,052-22,980], OR = 9,649). </p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> A predominance of female patients was found. Obesity was the most frequent comorbidity. The most frequent pathologies were those of the respiratory system. The absence of comorbidities shows a protective association for COVID-19, while obesity and dyspnea increase this association.</p> Edgar M. Huaraca-De los Santos Norka R. Guillen-Ponce Marlon Morales-Moisela Lucy E. Correa-López Copyright (c) 2022 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-26 2022-07-26 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.5060 Juvenile xanthogranuloma: clinical-pathological approach. Case reports <p>Juvenile Xanthogranuloma is a non-neoplastic skin lesion of the non-Langerhans histiocytosis type, which mainly affects the pediatric population and usually has a self-limited course. Exceptionally, the lesion is multifocal, ocular and even visceral, causing severe complications. We present the case of two 10-year-old female patients, with no other symptoms or important history, both with a single lesion, one on the thigh, with 3 months of evolution, the other on the scalp, with 4 months of evolution, both with progressive growth and surgically removed. The anatomopathological study identified multiple histiocytes in the dermis, with cytoplasmic lipidization and forming giant multinucleated cells, some of the Touton type, characteristic of this lesion. This unusual entity is reviewed, with emphasis on the histopathological criteria and the usual clinical course.</p> Eugenio A. Palomino Portilla Tula D. Ayquipa Arróspide Isaira G. Torpoco Baquerizo María A. Medrano Huallanca María del Pilar Quiñones Ávila Copyright (c) 2022 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.5007 Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cecal appendix <p>Cecal appendix adenocarcinoma occurs in approximately 0.1% to 0.2% of all appendectomies. One subtype, mucinous adenocarcinoma, represents 0.08% of all neoplasms. Diagnosis is usually incidental and surgery is the best treatment option. We describe the case of a 55-year-old male patient, evaluated for severe pain in the right iliac fossa, who was found to have an appendiceal mass during open appendectomy. A fragmented appendix measuring 7 x 1.8 x 0.8cm, with mucoid content in its lumen; as well as mucin pools in more than 50% of the sample and signet ring cells in light microscopy, revealed the pathological diagnosis of mucinous adenocarcinoma. Therefore, the pathological analysis of surgical pieces is transcendental, since there are infrequent diagnoses that can change the prognosis and course of clinical management of a patient.</p> Katherine L. Contreras Gala Mónica Villafuerte Rozas Copyright (c) 1970 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.3242 Superior vena cava syndrome for thrombosis the central venous catheter <p>Superior vena cava syndrome is a rare entity. The neoplastic etiology is the most relevant, as well as that related to invasive procedures with central venous catheter.<br>A 32-year-old man consults the Emergency Department for sudden facial cyanosis, facial tightness, dry cough, odynophagia, dysphonia and vertigo without dyspnea. He presents colon neoplasia since 2019, with colostomy and left subclavian Port-catheter. At examination, facial and upper extremity edema, central cyanosis, multiple petechiae and nail bleeding on the hands. The angiotomography shows filling defect fort recent thrombosis in left internal jugular and brachiocephalic vein, right brachiocephalic vein, arch of the azygos vein and superior vena cava in its entire lumen.<br>The surgical mechanical thromboaspiration allowed resection of the thrombus and restitution of circulation, with relative safety and low mortality.</p> Marco A. Vergara Labrín Miguel A. Guevara Cruz Hernán Aste Salazar Aurelio N. Delgado Salazar Copyright (c) 1970 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.4323 Cutaneous loxoscelism predominantly edematous: Clinical Case <p>The spider bite of the genus Loxosceles is a public health problem in regions of Latin America. In Peru, it occurs more frequently in homes in the coastal region and could have serious consequences, including death in the case of cutaneous and visceral loxoscelism (CVL). The case of a pediatric patient with a suspected spider bite is presented below. The clinical picture developed with marked edema of the face and neck, without developing respiratory distress and without evidence of systemic compromise. The slow resolution of the edema and the lack of response to the treatment of choice for angioedema allowed us to guide the diagnosis to predominantly edematous cutaneous loxoscelism (CLEP), which is an infrequent form of presentation.</p> Consuelo Luna-Muñoz Giuliana Reyes-Florián Martín Seminario-Aliaga Daniella Vinelli-Arzubiaga Copyright (c) 2022 Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana 2022-07-09 2022-07-09 22 3 10.25176/RFMH.v22i3.5040