Risk factors associated with nosocomial pneumonia in adult patients
Factores de riesgo asociados a neumonía nosocomial en pacientes adultos
Keywords:Nosocomial pneumonia, Hospital – acquired pneumonia, Risk factors
Objective: The objective of this article is to carry out a systematic review of several scientific publications
about the risk factors associated with nosocomial pneumonia in adult patients.
Methods: The review was conducted through the electronic search of various scientific articles related to the subject. The PEO question was used: Is there an association between risk factors and the development of nosocomial pneumonia in adult patients? The search sources were PubMed and Scielo. The key words were: "nosocomial pneumonia", "hospital - acquired pneumonia" in combination with "risk factors"; "Nosocomial pneumonia", "intrahospital pneumonia" together with "risk factors". Articles published from January 1, 2014 to December 10, 2018 were selected.
Results: Of the 101 articles found, 77 were discarded because they did not comply with our inclusion and exclusion criteria, leaving 24 articles for this review. The significant risk factors for NN were: Age (OR = 1.742, p = 0.000), consciousness disorder (HR: 2.0, P <0.005), CKD (OR: 2.194, P <0.002), COPD (OR: 3.52; p = 0.001), emergency tracheal intubation (OR 1.511, P <0.024) and mechanical ventilation (HR: 8.2, P <0.005), etc.
Conclusion: Various intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors are associated with the acquisition of nosocomial pneumonia in adult patients: Age, consciousness disorder, CKD, COPD, endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation and other factors.
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